Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Essay Topics For Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso Sea

Essay Topics For Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso SeaWriting a great essay is easier now than ever before. Some schools, like Columbia University and the University of North Carolina, no longer require an essay as a prerequisite for graduation.Also, there are study guides that outline the tips and techniques students can use in order to best enjoy their essay writing. Here are some of these guides and their tips for writing an eye-catching essay.Many students find that the Eye-Opening Essay Topics for Jane Eyre or 'Dead in the Water' is a common theme for them. The topic should be something they have experienced, either personally or through friends or family. It could be their school, their church, or any group of people. Many popular works of literature and movies have had this theme.Many students have found that when writing an essay about something that they have experienced personally, it is easier to write about their experiences with a broader perspective. This means that they have to think more about how to present their points. It is sometimes difficult to get into the head of someone who has experienced something that they are writing about. For example, if your classmate is involved in the same group as you, then trying to recall what they said might not work.There are also many study guides that help students write essays about other works of literature and films that feature a similar theme. So, if you are interested in reading novels that have an eye-opening theme, such as Dead in the Water or Room at the Top, there are study guides that are especially designed for you.Another common theme foran essay topics for Jane Eyre is that of death. As a teenager, most teenagers would have come across their parent's death, perhaps at their funeral or at their wake. This can be a difficult subject for some people, since death is an important part of life. If you have ever felt that you are dealing with the after-life, then you are an ideal candidate for writing a bout death.When you want to write an essay topics for Jane Eyre, 'Dead in the Water' or a similar theme, it is important to think about the person you are writing for. By reading and knowing what themes students often gravitate towards, it will be easier for you to find topics that are relevant to your target audience.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Readers Sympathy for Dorian from Wildes The Picture...

The French born author, Anais Nin once wrote, â€Å"We do not grow absolutely, chronologically. We grow sometimes in one dimension, and not in another; unevenly. We grow partially. We are relative† (Think Exist Quotations). Anais is expounding upon the inconsistency all people have in aspects of their personalities. Some days a person may be hailed as a saint for their actions, while other days they seem absolutely evil. In most literature, characters are defined as good or evil based on their revealed thoughts and actions. On occasion an anomaly may be found, where a character is more ambiguous. Dorian Gray’s Actions throughout The Picture of Dorian Gray paralyzes the readers’ ability to condemn Dorian as purely good or purely evil, causing†¦show more content†¦They also sympathize with how conflicted Dorian seems to be, trying to care about personal and tangible aspects of his world. At this point, readers still cannot condemn Dorian as necessarily go od or evil. Most people would consider Dorian’s personality to be swaying towards the evil side based on his vanity and extreme concern with himself until Sibyl Vane becomes the most prominent part of his life. Dorian meets Sibyl and instantly loves her. His instant love and compassion, though shallow, could mean that he does care about others on a deeper level. Dorian cares so much as to ask his good friend Lord Henry to â€Å"tell [him] how to charm Sibyl Vane to [loving him]. [He] wants[s] to make Romeo jealous† (ch 4). His desire to challenge the charm of one of the most infamous romantics shows that he is deeply devoted to, and seriously concerned with winning the affection of Sibyl Vane. Dorian makes his admiration for Sibyl apparent when he openly proclaims, â€Å"I love Sibyl Vane. I want to place her on a pedestal of gold, and to see the world worship the woman who is mine† (ch 6). Dorian wins over the audience a bit with his avid display of love. Readers sympathi ze with his ability to love, care and even worship a woman he has barley met. His evil and vain words pale in comparison to his light-hearted compassionate ones, making the readers feel bad for the shame they condemned himShow MoreRelatedOscar Wilde s The Picture Of Dorian Gray2021 Words   |  9 PagesProfessor McNeight English Lit II 3/1/15 Dorian Gray: A Battle With One’s Self Oscar Wilde’s â€Å"The Picture of Dorian Gray† is a story that focuses on the journey of an innocent and pure man, and his downward spiral of giving into temptation and committing crime, and living a life of pleasure. The story is centered around the idea of aestheticism. Everything is beautiful, the thought of something having any kind of â€Å"moral† meaning is just absurd. â€Å"The Picture of Dorian Gray† by Oscar Wilde both honors and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Education System Of The United States - 829 Words

Recent surveys and articles state that Over 30% of kids in the United States never finish high school. For minority kids, it s over 50%.1. The public education system in the United States seems to be failing to meet the needs of the children and thus affecting their future outcomes. The average quality of education in Elementary, Middle and High school that a child deserves, is far from superior. Given the growing competition in the world it is imperative to provide a solid educational foundation especially in the field of Math, Science and Reading. Being originally born and brought up in India, I believe I know the importance and value that a good education provides. Laying an early foundation in children is extremely essential for their success and continued ability to learn better and strive harder. For example, the education system in India and many parts of Asia is so competitive that parents are always looking for additional avenues to help their child learn and be successful. After-school tutoring begins there at a very early age. The schools play an active role in educating the children based on the curriculum and after-school tutoring reinforce the topics covered in school. Tutoring also reassures the parents that the child is capable of doing good and getting excellent grades. Emphasis on a strong foundation starts at an early age with the basics like alphabets and numbers. Children work at a far more advanced pace and progress rapidly with much more difficultShow MoreRelatedThe Education System Of The United States109 0 Words   |  5 Pages The education system in the United States is a problem. One problem is that many of the students attending school today live in poverty. Another problem with the education system is that the curriculums are not being altered to the skills needed in the world today. Furthermore, students are not allowed to use their individual learning styles in the classroom. The education system today has many flaws that are not being fixed. Many students in the education system are living in poverty. StudentsRead MoreThe Education System Of The United States1376 Words   |  6 PagesThe Need of Edification in schools The education system in the United Sates has a critical impact in our nation and how it’s shaped. Our system is constructed on trying to get our children ready for the working world, but while in school children are placed on a path that is adequate for them and convenient for the government. The government has established reforms to help guide students to become â€Å"successful† (modern reform The Common Core). Have these reforms done its job to help improve teachersRead MoreThe United States Education System1731 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States have long been held in high esteem by their peers for their higher education system’s ability to produce the best and brightest young adults that can impact the world. Students in our nation have a choice whether or not to attend prestigious higher-level institutions in order to educate themselves and prepare themselves for the job market. The U.S. has an outstanding reputation of educating students as well as ma king education available to everyone in the country. Whether it beRead MoreThe Education System Of The United States971 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent classes in the United States. As much as we want to believe that we live in an equal country, in reality we far from it. There are people barely hanging on to be able to eat enough and to find a place to sleep with other people on the other end of the spectrum who own multiple homes and waste enough food to feed many of the families on the opposite end of the spectrum. The thing that all of the classes have in common is the push for education and higher education specifically. There is aRead MoreThe United States Education System1687 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States education system is currently ranked 17th worldwide (â€Å"Global Grade†). According to the dictionary, education is the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing o neself or others intellectually for mature life. In a survey conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, adults in the United States scored way below average, and better than only two of the twelve countriesRead MoreThe Education System Of The United States1174 Words   |  5 PagesUnderstanding the importance of education is like understanding life. They go directly hand and hand, because learning is apart of the daily life of a child, and is extremely essential in a child’s development. Children are introduced to the education system for the purpose to learn and thrive in todays society. The education system is used to set a model for children to become successful adults for American society to prosper. Rarely, do we think about school conditions and the stress pushed uponRead MoreThe Education System Of The United States Essay1504 Words   |  7 PagesPurpose of Education As a developed nation, the United States owes its success to the education system that has evolved with our nation. While at times conflict consumes our nation, tragedy occurs, and hardships arise we can rest assured that our elected officials and citizens are making intelligent decisions that uphold our values, rights, and liberty. These leaders have been elected to operate our democratic society which is propelled forward by education. Education serves as the single most importantRead MoreEducation System Of The United States1495 Words   |  6 Pages Equalizing education in the Nation The United States education system is ranked lower and lower every year. In a time where our children have to compete for jobs with children of the number one and number two countries on the most educated list, it seems that we can barely keep up. International tests show that American students are falling behind to countries such as Singapore, Canada, North Korea and Japan (Pearson, the learning curve). So how can we as a country that’s ranked to have 14thRead MoreThe United States Education System951 Words   |  4 Pages’† and in order to re-engage the young, serious research on everyday education needs to be expressed (p. 33). The U.S. education system needs to understand that ambiguity exists, and a rapid cycle of policy changes will stagnate their efforts to achieving cultural globalization. Often times, U.S. teachers try to blame the media for the faults of youth today, but they lack the understanding that their â€Å"tightly scripted systems of management, measurement, and marketing† push those same kids to seekRead MoreThe United States Education System972 Words   |  4 Pageswould think that as a World Superpower the United States education system would be producing exceptionally high caliber young men and women to become contributing members of society upon graduation. However, in many ways, the opposite is shown to be the case, with declining test scores, with a 19% dropout rate among high school students, with a 41% drop out rate of college students, and 40% of the graduates unprepared to either continue their educations at universities or become worthwhile members

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Conflict Map and Analysis

Question: Discuss about theConflict Map and Analysis. Answer: Introduction Conflict resolution is the process of finding an amicable solution to a conflict between two rival groups that are involved in dispute. Rivaling groups try to resolve their conflict by actively communicating or bringing forward their concerns and negotiating on the best way to end the debate. Conflict resolution is a delicate process that is sensitive to environmental factors and cultural practices. Finding a solution to a conflict is a process that requires a clear understanding of the primary issue and laying down the possible consequences for taking an individual course of action. Some approaches can are applicable in conflict resolution. These include mediation, litigation, and arbitration. Mediation and arbitration involve revolving solving a conflict through a third party who does not participate in the battle. Litigation, on the other hand, involves conflict resolution through a court action. The purpose of this essay is to draw an analysis of a conflict case study by analyzin g the underlying facts and stating what ought to be done to de-escalate the crisis. Case Study In the case study above, there is a conflict involving George Pell, Australian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and David Ridsdale, a high-ranking government official. David accused George of offering a bribe to him to withhold a testimony involving a child abuse case. The conflict arises because George Pell refused to appear before the Royal Commission in person to present his evidence and instead opting to do it over the video from Vatican (Halter, 2013, pp.261). The conflict resolution method involved in this case is litigation. Litigation is used to coerce disputing parties to participate in the conflict resolution process. The two sides involved have to present their testimonies to the royal commission to end the controversies (Marr, 2013). A royal commission is an organization that is mandated to make public inquiries into a contentious national issue. The royal commission has the power to sermon all the parties involved in the controversy. It has an obligation to listen and analyze all the testimonies and facts regarding a matter before making a ruling. Stakeholders, on the other hand, have a right to a fair hearing and an obligation to present any evidence that might help them resolve the case. The parties involved are required to sign an agreement affirming that they will abide by the decision of the royal commission. Even though the royal commission judges get an endorsement from the government of the day, their rulings are free of political interference. Royal commissions highly regard transparency and integrity. Causes of the Conflict (Guerzoni and Graham, 2015, pp.58): Political factors the two primary parties involved in this case are the government and the Catholic Church. The government participates in the fact that it appoints the royal commission judge bench even though the commission has its independent powers. The current justices of the royal commission received an endorsement from the previous government which later formed the opposition after losing the last general elections. The Catholic Church has good relations and influence with the current administration. This factor offers a perfect platform for the government and opposition to flex their ideological muscles thereby escalating the crises further (Budiselik 2014, pp.565). The media the publicity given to this case by the media houses has exceeded what is necessary for the resolution process. The case has made headlines for some days thereby creating more tension in the society. The media attention has also changed the way the society views handles conflict due to the varying opinions that are offered by the stakeholders. Financial factors the Australian government has not provided any extra financial support to the direct stakeholders so as to enable them to give their testimonies before the commission in person. The lack of funding has reduced the chances of fair representation of the defendant (Middleton et al. 2014, pp.20). Social-cultural factors there has been a significant change in the way that people handle disputes over the last three decades. Victims of sexual abuse, for instance, were earlier viewed as outcasts and often encountered discrimination from the members of the society. On the other hand, the perpetrators of such crimes were left to walk free without facing any consequences for these offenses. The situation has however changed. The society profoundly disregards authors of social evils. Nevertheless, the society has become more concerned with the victim of such an offense and will fight for the victims justice through legal actions. Legal factors tension further escalates because the previous administration appointed the judging bench of the royal commission. It is not clear whether the current government, which is a stakeholder in the crises, may decide to make changes to the royal commission before the commencement of the proceedings (Waddell and Jones, 2016). Advantages of Litigation in the Case Study Cost effective traveling from Vatican to Australia is a long distance that would require a substantial investment. In addition to the above factor, George Pell is ailing and would need medical support to accompany him. The additional individuals would mean that the transport cost would further increase. Time saving delivering testimony via video will take lesser time than traveling from Europe to Australia. A video communication is thus as effective as giving the evidence in person while since it saves time. More efficient than other conflict resolution methods litigation process assures all the parties involved in getting a fair hearing. The parties are also assured of justice unlike in other conflict resolution processes like arbitration where the arbitrator is prone to manipulation. Disadvantages ofLitigation in the Case Study Escalation of the crises due to publicity in the above case, a Catholic priest, and a high-ranking government official are involved which therefore attracts public attention. All the parties involved such as the legislators, the media, and the public has their motives which further magnifies the impact of the case on the society. The media, for instance, is excited since they will attract more public attention with the story. This awareness will, in turn, increase their sales. The process may be time-consuming in some instances. The delay happens the details involved in the case are many and complex prompting the royal commission to spend more time analyzing the situation. Furthermore, there are legal procedures that must be followed regarding the presentation of evidence and making a ruling. The legal proceedings consist of a given timeframe which the judges must wait before making a decision. Litigation might be costly in some instances. The high cost is due to the bills that every citizen is required to pay when registering a case. In addition to these expenses, a favorable case such as the one above may prompt lawyers to ask for high legal fees which the parties involved are required to finance. The case above may not be fair due to the likeliness of government interference. The defendant, in this instance, is a government official. It means that the legislators are keen to defend the state and may thus interfere with the proceedings of the royal commission. De-escalating the Crisis The case study presented here has escalated to the national level due to the high profile of the individuals involved. The primary driving force behind this escalation is not the weight of the dispute involved but the media attention that it has involved. What is clear is that the motive of the media houses is to promote their businesses and not to advocate for justice and fairness. Litigation is an excellent method of conflict resolution in this case as a way of providing transparency and impartiality to both parties. However, there is a much broader scope that involves this case. Litigation has provided an avenue to publicity of the issue which is inappropriate considering that the primary victim is a sexual abuse child. Continuous broadcasting is likely to negatively affect the childs life and instill fear in them. That is why it would have been more appropriate to consider another conflict resolution method (Barsky, 2014). One of the best-known methods of resolving disputes in such a case is arbitration. Arbitration is a process of resolving conflicts whereby a third party reviews the facts involved in making a ruling that is legally binding to both sides. The third party is known as an arbitrator. Arbitration gives the parties involved a chance to agree on the arbitrator thereby reducing a chance of interference from external parties (Kohn and Rosenberg, 2014, pp.1151) Advantages of Arbitration Unlike in litigation where a person is not allowed to choose the jury, arbitration gives the opposing parties a chance to state whether they are comfortable with the third party who is helping resolve the conflict. Disputing parties in arbitration get an opportunity to present their suggestions to the appropriate the appropriate arbitrator before commencing the proceedings. In this case, they can choose a highly qualified legal professional to offer them a solution. Arbitration saves the time involved in conflict resolution process. No given period has been stipulated by the law within which the process should take place. The parties involved are the ones that agree on how soon they would want to end the conflict. The process is less costly in comparison with other conflict resolution techniques such as litigation. In litigation, disputing parties are required to pay court fees and hire attorneys to represent them. It is not the case in arbitration. Hiring legal professionals, in this instance, is a personal decision. This fact makes the process cost efficient. Arbitration is a nonpublic process. Rival parties can solve their dispute at discretion. This fact is what makes it the most preferred conflict resolution method. In the preliminary case study, all the factors of litigation involved such as the jury can fit into arbitration. What makes the later more efficient is that it offers the parties more privacy thereby reducing the adverse effects of publicity. The parties are at liberty to seek further legal advice in an instance where they fail to agree on the way forward. They also have the freedom of adopting other conflict resolution methods such as litigation. The reverse is not true for litigation. Parties solving a dispute through litigation is not at liberty to turn into other methods because the ruling made in this case is final. In case one of the parties feels uncomfortable with the decision, they may extend hostilities to the other parties indirectly. This hostility may further complicate the dispute. Disadvantages of Arbitration There is a limitation to appeal. There is no set guidelines as to how the arbitration process should be carried out. Lack of a predetermined set of conditions to guide this process makes it vulnerable to erroneous judgments that may be unfair to one of the parties. Such a decision may be difficult to overturn where the parties had committed themselves to a permanent final solution from the arbitrator. An arbitrator has no power to enforce the rulings that they make. The lack of an executive authority leaves one of the parties exposed to injustice after the final decision. Further Analysis The royal commission has the power to lecture all the groups involved in the crises. It has the duty to evaluate and analyze all the evidence and material facts regarding an issue before offering an opinion. There is a wider range that involves this incident. Legal action has provided an avenue to publicize of the subject which is unfortunate considering that the ultimate casualty is a sexual offense youngster. Unceasing propagation is likely to adversely affect the childs life and possibly drill fear in them. It is the reason as to why it would be more suitable to put into consideration other conflict resolution approaches. Conflict resolution through legal action is a complex process and is prone to environmental influences and cultural orientation (Foley, 2015, pp.164). Coming up with a solution to the problem is a route that entails a clear understanding of the principal facts and establishing the likely consequences for carrying out a given activity. There exist various tactics that are applicable in conflict elimination. These include arbitration mediation and litigation. Mediation and adjudication comprise of deescalating crises through other parties that are not involved in the skirmish (Moore, 2014). Court process, on the other hand, comprises of a conflict resolution through a legal approach. The people have a right to a fair representation and a duty to bring forward any information that can assist them to win the case. Conflicting individuals might be obligated to affirm their commitment that they will adhere to the requirements of a tribunal or decision of the royal commission (Mullis and Scott, 2012, pp.5). The current government instills the royal commission judges; their verdicts are free of civil intrusion. Royal commissions strictly observe transparency and honesty. The participating individuals have the right to seek further resolution alternatives in a case where they fail to get an amicable solution. They are also at liberty to adopt other conflict resolution techniques such as mediation. It is, however, not likely in the case of litigation. People finding a solution to a crisis through court action do not have the right to turn to other techniques since the decision made by this channel is abiding by both parties. In the case where one of the parties unsatisfied with the decision, they are likely to become more hostile to their rivals even after the ruling. This aggression may further escalate the crisis. It is vital to the point that different conflict resolution methods have their unique characteristics that make them suitable for different occasions. Although some approaches are appropriate for reducing a crisis, they are likely to bring about further problems in the following years (Ralph, 2013, pp.19). Conclusion Conflict resolution is a process that requires keen attention to details. It is important to note that not all peace finding methods are appropriate wherever there is a crisis. Even though some techniques may appear necessary do deescalating a crisis, they may have an adverse outcome in the long-term. In the case study above, a very crucial step of finding the best conflict resolution approach did not get consideration. Adoption of litigation without making further inquiries on the long term effects helped escalate the crises instead of offering a solution. It would have been more appropriate to consider the broader effects of every approach before coming up with the one to adopted. In addition to the above considerations, there is a need of bringing together all the stakeholders of a conflict together before commencing the resolution process. This gathering would offer a platform for sensitizing them on the part they have to play in de-escalating the crisis. References Barsky, A., 2014.Conflict resolution for the helping professions. Oxford University Press. Budiselik, W., Crawford, F. and Chung, D., 2014. The Australian Royal Commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse: dreaming of child safe organisations?. Social Sciences, 3(3), pp.565-583. Foley, T., 2015. Institutional responses to child sexual abuse: how a moral conversation with its lawyers might contribute to cultural change in a faith-based institution. Legal Ethics, 18(2), pp.164-181. Gounaris, S., Chatzipanagiotou, K., Boukis, A. and Perks, H., 2016. Unfolding the recipes for conflict resolution during the new service development effort.Journal of Business Research. Guerzoni, M. and Graham, H., 2015. Catholic Church Responses to Clergy-Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Exemptions in Victoria, Australia: A Discursive Critique. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(4), pp.58-75. Halter, N., 2013. The Australian Catholic Church and the Public Sphere: World Youth Day 2008. Journal of Religious History, 37(2), pp.261-282. Healy, K., 2015. Becoming a trustworthy profession: Doing better than doing good. Australian Social Work, pp.1-10. Korn, D. and Rosenberg, D., 2012. Concepcion's Pro-Defendant Biasing of the Arbitration Process: The Class Counsel Solution.U. Mich. JL Reform,46, p.1151. Marr, D., 2013. The prince: Faith, abuse and George Pell. Quarterly Essay, (51), p.1. Middleton, W., Stavropoulos, P., Dorahy, M.J., Krger, C., Lewis-Fernndez, R., Martnez-Taboas, A., Sar, V. and Brand, B., 2014. The Australian Royal Commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse.Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry,48(1), pp.17-21. Moore, C.W., 2014.The mediation process: Practical strategies for resolving conflict. John Wiley Sons. Mullis, A. and Scott, A., 2012. Reframing libel: taking (all) rights seriously and where it leads. N. Ir. Legal Q., 63, p.5. Ralph, N., Welch, A.J., Norris, P. and Irwin, R., 2013. Reflections on power, conflict and resolution for the perioperative environment.ACORN: the journal of perioperative nursing in Australia,26(1), p.19. Waddell, T. and Jones, T.W., 2016. The spoken and unspoken nature of child abuse in the miniseries Devils Playground: The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, the Catholic Church and television drama in Australia. Media International Australia, p.1329878X16631840. Wallensteen, P., 2015.Understanding conflict resolution. Sage.

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Global Title Translation Essay Example

Global Title Translation Essay SS7 Tutorial Global Title Copryright SS8 Networks 2002 Before we get deeply into the subject of Global Title, it might help to get a very broad view of exactly what Global Title is. Simply defined, it is an address. But it is not an address of a node in the SS7 network (DPC, SSN). Instead, it is an alias for such an address that needs to be translated into an SS7 network address. With that definition out of the way, let’s quickly review what we know about SS7 addressing in general. To begin with, each User Part approaches addressing in a different way. The MTP (Message Transfer Part) has a job that is limited to reliably transferring messages over the links in a link set. That is, MTP only cares about the address of the node at the other end of the links it is tending. Therefore the only addressing the MTP requires is the SPC (Signalling Point Code) of the node at the end of its links. MTP sees this address as the Destination Point Code (DPC) of all messages it sends over the links. The only concern MTP has for any other location in the network is to be able to make use of the final destination of the message to help it pick out one link set from all the available linksets as the best one to use for sending the message. This is what MTP routing is all about. ISUP addressing is different. In normal Call Control use, ISUP addresses a switch at the other end of its trunk connections. For the SS7, this too means using a Destination Point Code (DPC). We will write a custom essay sample on Global Title Translation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Global Title Translation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Global Title Translation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer But the switch ISUP talks to (which is the next switch in a circuit being set up or torn down) is not necessarily (and really not likely) to be located at the other end of its own SS7 links. The job of addressing all other locations falls to the SCCP. Actually SCCP could be used to address the same switching locations as ISUP. If it were used in this way, SCCP could be used for end-to-end signal routing in conjunction with ISUP. But since the usual switch-to-switch routing of ISUP provides complete circuit information for all switches along the voice path, SCCP is rarely used in this way. Like the other User Parts, SCCP can, and does, make use of DPC. This address alone can be used to get a message to any node in the global SS7 network in the same way that a telephone number can be used to address any telephone in the global telephone network. But SCCP addressing needs to go beyond this method of addressing. The reason is that at each DPC there is a â€Å"system† operating. That system may be a Call Control application or a database or some other program of some type. The problem is that within that system there may be multiple applications running. Thus a Signalling Point Code (which is addressed as a Destination Point Code) may be the home of both a Credit Card Database and an 800 Number Database. Using the DPC as the SS7 address will get the message delivered to the â€Å"system† but it won’t get the message delivered to the appropriate database application. For this purpose, a separate identifier of a system within the system is required. That identifier is the Subsystem Number (SSN). It may be tempting to think of SSN as a database identifier. And, indeed, an SSN will be applied to a database even when only one database application is available at a specified DPC. But, avoid the temptation. The truth is that SSN is also used to sub-address any location at which multiple applications are running. For example, a switch offering several features may use SSN to separately identify each feature. Think of SSN as simply an application identifier. That brings us to what you came for. The third addressing mechanism employed by SCCP is the Global Title, You might say this is the address used when the location requiring information doesn’t know the address. A Global Title implies the need for translation. Before you become too confused, let’s try an example. If you dial an 800 number, the switch to which you are connected becomes more confused than you are right now. The reason is that every number to which the switch can route has a geographical reference which the switch maintains in its own routing table. In North America, the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) provides the clues for that routing. So, for example, if you dial a â€Å"1† first, the switch knows it must make a connection to a long distance switch. The long distance switch will choose from among its connections to route the call into the region suggested by the area code. Then the routing goes to the switch in the appropriate exchange code. And, finally, that switch selects the appropriate line number. But you may have dialed 1-800-FLY-AWAY. The numbering plan is useless. The switch can’t even begin to make a connection. Instead, it sends a request into the SS7 network which essentially asks, ‘Will someone look this number up in an 800 database and translate it into an NANP number that I can route? Such a number is returned and the switch proceeds as if that number had been dialed in the first place. The switch can always get the information from such a database as long as it has the DPC and SSN of the 800 Number application in its SS7 routing table. But, therein lies a problem. Every day, new services are deployed into the SS7 network around the world. Some of them are proprietary and are, therefore, accessible on ly to the switches in the same proprietary network. Others are intended to be offered to other networks for a fee. So, here is the problem. If a service becomes universally available, does that mean that every switch on the planet needs to add the location (DPC) and identifier (SSN) to its SS7 routing table? Obviously if that were the case new services would spread slowly; and each switch would have to maintain huge tables of routing information. A better answer is to keep that information at a much more limited number of locations in the network (such as STPs) and allow the switches to identify their requests for information without identifying where, or from what applications the information can be retrieved. That means that when a switch wants a translation, it need only identify the nature of the translation needed (for example, 800 number to NANP number) and send the request to a location whose routing table tells it where such translations can be performed. A single location in the routing table of the switch (such a location as an STP) may serve to provide 800 Number translations, 900 number translations, Credit Card validation, etc. Even the first location which receives the request does not have to maintain a routing table of all locations on the globe. Instead, it may have a table which indicates that all requests in several similar categories should be sent to one location while requests in other categories can be sent somewhere else. All of this is possible because, with Global Title requests, the originator of the request does not need to know where or what application can provide the answer to the request. Global Title has even more uses. For example, the STP may be able to send Dialed Digit translation requests to either of two databases at two different database nodes. The receipt of a Prohibited signal (indicating the database is unavailable) from he SCCP at one of the database locations can tell the STP to change its lookup to another Global Title Table. The translation there, in turn, can result in address information used to send queries to the backup location The drawing below will illustrate the concept (but obviously not the coding) of Global Title queries. With the concepts firmly implanted we’ll move on to the actual coding. G Ro S7 S uti ng ou TR g t in r be um 0n : 80 es to nd ri Se q ue 00 -20 10 r be um 0 n to: 80 s n d rie -05 Se que 20 10 3 C 2 DP N 1 SS 10-20-00 80 GT 9 29 0 35 29 ? 8 GT SSP ? se 91 Respon 4 452 71 71 s Re ns po 00 359 292 0 1-80 A FLY WAY ? As an alias addressing mechanism, Global Title can obviate the need for ubiquitous ponderous routing tables. (Actually I just said that to see if you were still awake). It can also hide network assets and provide greater control for conditional rerouting requirements. e9 14 45 27 17 1 SCP 10-20-05 SSN 123 Perhaps the biggest mystery surrounding the use of Global title is the meaning of each of the fields in a Global Title message. We’ll try to destroy that mystery next. Calling/Called Party Address To begin with, this contains all of the information required to identify the originator and the intended destination of the message. To understand why these values are important it might help to examine the way in which a Global Title request travels around the SS7 network. 1. An SSP receives dialed digits which it cannot use to route a call in the PSTN (e. g. an 800 number). 2. The switch consults its SS7 routing information to determine where to send the numbers for translation. If there is no information about the SS7 location of the translation table, the query may be sent to an intermediate STP whose routing table indicates where to send queries for translation. The message from the originating witch contains fields to indicate the full nature of the query. Address Indicator Foretells the type of addressing information to be found in the address field. This can be a single type of address or any combination of the address types Signalling Point Code, Global Title (e. g. Dialed Digits) and Subsystem Number. This field tells the receiving node what kind of addressing information to look for. The following tabl e indicates the significance of each of the bits in the octet with the bits numbered in the order in which they are sent/received. 8 7 6 5 3 2 1 Network Routing Indicator Indicator (Nat/Int) Global Title Indicator Point SSN Code Indicator Indicator Bits of the Address Indicator The following tables list the contents of the Address Indicator bit by bit and indicate the significance of bit placement within the octet. Bits #1-2 xxxxxxx1 xxxxxx1x Signifies: The address contains an SSN The address contains an SPC Bits #3-6 xx0000xx xx0001xx xx0010xx Signifies: No Global Title included Global Title Includes Translation Type, Numbering Plan and Encoding Scheme Global Title Includes Translation Type Only three possible combinations of bits 3 through 6 are given in the table because the remaining combinations are either spares for National/International networks, are unassigned in the U. S. , or are reserved for future use. Since multiple address elements may be used, bit #7 is used to identify which of these elements should be used for routing, Bit #7 x0xxxxxx x1xxxxxx Signifies: An SCCP translation is required. Therefore routing should be based on the Global Title in the address. An SCCP translation is not required. Therefore, routing should be based on the DPC (found in the Routing Label) and the SSN (found in the Called Party Address. Bit 8 is used to identify the address as national or international as shown in the following table. Bit #8 0xxxxxxx 1xxxxxxx Signifies: Both the address indicator and the address are coded according to international specifications. Both the address indicator and the address are coded according to national specifications. At this point it might be helpful to further explore both the Address Indicator and the actual Calling/Called Party Address. In the text preceding these tables we spoke of the actual address before we spoke of the Address Indicator. We did this in the hope of helping you to understand the need for the Address Indicator. In the message itself, the Indicator comes first. This allows the receiving side to determine how it must interpret the data in the Address before it has seen that data. Following the Address Indicator comes the actual Called/ Calling Party addressing. As can be seen from the Global Title Fields of the Address Indicator, the first octet of the Address may be a Translation Type. The next octets may be a Signaling Point Code, and the final octets may be the actual Global Title Address itself. We have repeatedly use the word may here because, as you can see from the Address Indicator, the Address may not even be a Global Title. As you can also see from the indicator, when Global Title is present, it may contain a Translation Type, a Numbering Plan, and an Encoding Scheme. We’ll examine these values next. Remember that we started by defining Global Title as an address. Subsystem Number and Signaling Point Code are also addresses. The difference is that the Global Title is an address of variable length and, perhaps of variable format which requires translation. For example, the Global Title may be the digits that were dialed which the switch was unable to use because they were not in North American Numbering Plan format. Global Title Format Following a Global Title Indicator value of 0001 In the Address Indicator Address Information N u m b e r i n g P l a n E n c o d i n g S c h e m e Translation Type Octet 3 Octet 2 ( above) Octet 1 A glance back at bits 3-6 in the Address Indicator should serve to remind you that it can indicate there is no Global Title Address in the message. It can also indicate that there is a Global Title Address and that the address includes a Translation Type. Or, it can indicate that there is a Global Title Address and that the address includes Global Title Translation Type, Numbering Plan and Encoding Scheme The previous paragraph contains some of the terms which seem to provide some of the greatest confusion over Global Title. You now have most of the information you need to understand Global Title. With a little luck, if we can clear up these final mysterious terms, all the pieces of Global Title should finally fall into place. Translation Type Global Title can be used in numerous ways. Therefore the possibility for many different applications requiring Global Title Addressing also exists. Such applications may be unique to a specific network, or they may be in use so generally that they are common to numerous networks. When the services of an application in one network are requested at a location outside that networking, certain internetworking applications may also be involved to transport requests and responses between networks. For example, telephone calls can be charged using cards issued by service providers or by banks and other types of financial institutions. The caller is required to enter a PIN number when making the call so that an application can validate the card through a database application. This is such a common application that the ANSI standard of 1996 has defined it as the Identification Card Application Group and has assigned to the Translation Type byte the value of 00000001 (decimal 1) Other applications are becoming universally available, and, a a result both the most recent ANSI and ITU standards are beginning to assign values for these services so that they may be used as standardized values across the SS7 network at large. SCP assisted services (such as 800 number translations) are another group of universal services which have been assigned their own Translation Types. Despite the growth of such commonly used services, the standards organizations have resisted the temptation to assign all 256 values which can be represented by the Translation Type byte. Indeed, under the ANSI standard an entire range of values (11000000 to 11111001) have been set aside for internal network usage. The table on the next page identifies the assignments in the ANSI standard. Translation Type Coding Decimal Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to 31 32 192 to 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 Notes: reserved* The value 253 has been used for network specific applications as well as for the 14 digit Calling Card application while the value 251 has been used for both network specific applications and for the Call Management application. ** The value 254 is already in use for some internetwork applications such as 800 service. Network providers not using this value are cautioned to consider potential conflicts before employing the same value for network specific applications. Byte Values 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00000110 00000111 00001000 Application/Translation Group reserved Identification Cards reserved* Cellular Nationwide Roaming Service Global Title = Point Code Calling Name Delivery reserved* Message Waiting SCP Assisted Call Processing 00001001 to 00011111 Internetwork Applications 00100000 spare 11000000 to 11111001 Network Specific Applications 11111010 11111011 11111100 11111101 11111110 11111111 Network Specific Applications reserved* Network Specific Applications reserved* ** reserved Encoding Scheme With the actual address value data coming up, the receiving node needs to recognize how many digits it should look for and how to translate these values from the binary code. These four bits present that information. Code 0000 0001 Unknown Signifies: The address has an odd number of digits and should be converted to decimal values using Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) conversion. The address has an odd number of digits and should be converted to decimal values using Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) conversion. 011 to 1111 Spare The only remaining date preceding the actual address is the numbering plan (such as NANP) identifier. The purpose of this tutorial has been to explore the concept, use and coding of Global Title. In the course of doing this, we have not examined the entire SCCP message formatting of which Global Title is a part. Our reference here has been the ANSI T1. 112-96 Recommendations. For more information on the products on this page, visit our home page at http: //www. ss8. com or come to http://www. adc-adapts. com SMserverâ„ ¢ Short Message Service Center (SMSC) for GSM and IS41 wireless networks. OTAserverâ„ ¢ Over-the-Air Service Provisioning (OTASP) for CDMA and TDMA wireless networks. CALEAserverâ„ ¢ SS8 offers the solution that allows carriers to meet Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) requirements today. Signaling Gateway There are a lot of gateways. But SS8’s distributed environment and high performance make for a stand-out in the field. Distributed7â„ ¢ SS8’s latest generation of SS7 development platforms is designed for high availability carrier applications. The clustered multi-host architecture enables SS7 to run on multiple computers simultaneously under a single SS7 point code. Distributed7 takes SS7 reliability beyond fault tolerant platforms. Connect7â„ ¢ Host independent controller board embedded with full Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) functionality. Easy7â„ ¢ The ideal link concentration solution for smaller networks. This mini-STP can be in the same room with multiple SS7 signaling points with the result that fewer SS7 links can handle your network traffic. For some, the pay-back can be astonishingly short.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free Essays on Rabbit Hill

The terms and criteria for receiving a Newbery Award are well defined. Each year the Medal is awarded to what is considered the author of â€Å"the most distinguished contribution to American Literature for Children published in the United States during the preceding year.† (ALSC, ) â€Å"A. Committee members are asked to consider the following: Interpretation of theme or concept, Presentation of information including accuracy, clarity, and organization, Development of plot, Delineation of characters, Delineation of setting, Appropriateness of style. B. Committee members must consider excellence of presentation for a child audience.† (ALSC) Rabbit Hill met these standards in 1945, and has since stood the test of time, remaining to this day a favorite of children. It’s steady readership has kept it in print along with six other of Robert Lawson’s books, and this combined with the fact that he is the only author to win both the Newbery and Caldecott Medals, assure his place as a significant contributor to twentieth century children’s literature. (Cech) The premise of the book surrounds a community of animals that live on Rabbit Hill. The farmhouse has been empty for a while and the previous tenants were slovenly and derelict. Times have been hard of late for the animals, and provisions scarce. Mr. Lawson introduces the reader to the animal characters one by one as news of â€Å" New Folk Coming†, to live in the farmhouse passes from one to another. The animal’s personalities are based somewhat on man’s conception of each species’ general characteristics and are further fleshed out by lively dialogue. Thus, the reader is able to see the regality and aloofness, in Red Buck’s stately nature and Phewie’s low-class, comic relief in the following exchange. â€Å"â€Å"You do have such low tastes, Phewie,† said the Buck. â€Å"er-by the way, the breeze seems to have shifted-would you mind? There, that’s fine, thanks, as I w... Free Essays on Rabbit Hill Free Essays on Rabbit Hill The terms and criteria for receiving a Newbery Award are well defined. Each year the Medal is awarded to what is considered the author of â€Å"the most distinguished contribution to American Literature for Children published in the United States during the preceding year.† (ALSC, ) â€Å"A. Committee members are asked to consider the following: Interpretation of theme or concept, Presentation of information including accuracy, clarity, and organization, Development of plot, Delineation of characters, Delineation of setting, Appropriateness of style. B. Committee members must consider excellence of presentation for a child audience.† (ALSC) Rabbit Hill met these standards in 1945, and has since stood the test of time, remaining to this day a favorite of children. It’s steady readership has kept it in print along with six other of Robert Lawson’s books, and this combined with the fact that he is the only author to win both the Newbery and Caldecott Medals, assure his place as a significant contributor to twentieth century children’s literature. (Cech) The premise of the book surrounds a community of animals that live on Rabbit Hill. The farmhouse has been empty for a while and the previous tenants were slovenly and derelict. Times have been hard of late for the animals, and provisions scarce. Mr. Lawson introduces the reader to the animal characters one by one as news of â€Å" New Folk Coming†, to live in the farmhouse passes from one to another. The animal’s personalities are based somewhat on man’s conception of each species’ general characteristics and are further fleshed out by lively dialogue. Thus, the reader is able to see the regality and aloofness, in Red Buck’s stately nature and Phewie’s low-class, comic relief in the following exchange. â€Å"â€Å"You do have such low tastes, Phewie,† said the Buck. â€Å"er-by the way, the breeze seems to have shifted-would you mind? There, that’s fine, thanks, as I w...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Module 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Module 5 - Essay Example The number of visits made have a mean of 2.86 with a variance of 4.87. The standard deviation is 2.21 confirming the spread of the data. Group A has wide variations in terms of among the group observations. As Richmond, R (2006) puts it, the amount of variations in a group determine how the elements of the group are spread and how the differences amount to. The workers in group A are quite different from each other and it will not be a good idea to hire them due to this. Both groups have the same mean of 79.1 but the workers in group B have almost the same traits than in group A. When it comes to getting the services of a certain group, Group B is most likely due to its homogeneity. Group A has a standard deviation high above the expected of 24.12. In business, the mean is the best measure of central tendency. For example when you are reporting the sales you made in a day, the mean in the figure to use sine it shows what you have done in overall. On the other hand, while dealing in shares, the median is the most important as it shows the price which is the expectation of many. It shows where many people would like or got their shares in. In exports, the mode is the most important since it determines the frequency of doing business as well as the expected profit. Mode is also applicable when one is dealing with prediction of future business